2 edition of New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo found in the catalog.
New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo
S. J. Bolsenga
1980 by Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Environmental Research Laboratories in Ann Arbor .
Written in English
|Series||GLERL contribution -- no. 222., NOAA technical memorandum ; ERL GLERL-27, NOAA technical memorandum ERL GLERL -- 27.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||36 p. :|
|Number of Pages||36|
Each chart shows the mapmakers’ inferred ice edge as well as the type of ice present, for example large ice fields or new ice, in certain locations. As a reference for today’s user, these descriptors have been converted into approximate percent-coverage values by V. Underhill and F. Fetterer at NSIDC, based on a combination of historical. Some clouds have an albedo as high as 90% which makes Earth appear bright when observed from space. Much has been reported about a recent decrease in sea ice in the Arctic. Sea ice forms directly over water in contrast to glaciers, ice caps, or ice sheets that form over land. A large body of water covered with lots of sea ice will reflect much. The albedo of the ﬁrst-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8ngg−1 of black carbon causes a de-crease to % of the original albedo for ﬁrst-year sea ice compared to a decrease to % for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of nm. The albedo Cited by: Impacts of Albedo Effect Much of the sunlight reflects back when it reaches the earth surface, if it’s not reflected then its absorbed, and that’s why the temperature increases This melts the ice and increases the global temperature to a few degrees, .
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New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo v, 36 p. (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Book, Internet Resource: All Authors / Contributors: S J Bolsenga; Great.
NEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE DAILY VARIATIONS OF NATURAL ICE ALBEDOl i.!, I S.I. Bolsenga Observations on the daily variation of ice albedo indicate a significant dependence of snow-ice and refrozen-slush-ice albedo on solar altitude under clear skies. Significant albedo vari-ations were noted under variable cloudy conditions, but attempts.
New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo 36 p. (OCoLC) Material Type: Document, Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File: All Authors / Contributors: S J Bolsenga; Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
New observations on the daily variations of natural ice albedo, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL, 36p. Google Scholar Bolsenga, S.J. Cited by: 1.
If the ice-albedo feedback becomes dominant in high latitudes at some point as the climate warms, a runaway feedback will ensue in which the climate transitions to a new state.
A google search of “runaway ice-albedo feedback” yields over a million hits. incorporate the temporal variability of snow and ice albedo in numerical models of the surface energy balance.
This can be done either by specifying the albedo on the basis of continuous observations, or by computing it with a physical model or empirically based parameterization.
Direct surface measurements of snow and ice albedo are sparse Cited by: Global warming - Global warming - Ice melt and sea level rise: A warming climate holds important implications for other aspects of the global environment.
Because of the slow process of heat diffusion in water, the world’s oceans are likely to continue to warm for several centuries in response to increases in greenhouse concentrations that have taken place so far.
Albedo (/ æ l ˈ b iː d oʊ /) (Latin: albedo, meaning 'whiteness') is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation and measured on a scale from 0, corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation, to 1, corresponding to a body that reflects all incident radiation.
Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of radiosity to the. Albedo of sea ice is dependent on ice thickness, brine volume, air bubbles, ice growth rate and melting / non-melting conditions (Perovich et al.,Curry et al.,Perovich et al.
Ice sheets are also melting. Observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites, which measure very precisely Earth’s gravity field and can detect changes in mass, show that since the Greenland ice sheet has lost about 4, Gt of mass, and the Antarctic ice sheet has lost about 2, Gt (Fig.
7).Here is a presentation about Greenland melting. Moore identified variations in albedo through the day, but these were relatively trivial and he concluded that a mean albedo of ± could be applied to the canopy for all solar elevations.
Pinker () found that the albedo of a tropical evergreen forest showed very marked diurnal variation, from about (early morning/evening) to. Figure 1: Earth albedo anomalies as measured by earthshine.
In black are the albedo anomalies published in (Palle ). In blue are the updated albedo anomalies after improved data analysis, which also include more years of data (Palle ).
Over a five-year period, scientists found that albedo did increase slightly.  There is an ongoing shift in the Arctic sea ice cover from multiyear ice to seasonal ice. Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo. Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases; cold snow, melting snow, pond formation, pond drainage, pond evolution, open water, and freezeup.
The variations of the albedo of typical clouds in the atmosphere are dominated by the column amount of liquid water and ice in the cloud. Cloud albedo varies from less than 10% to more than 90% and depends on drop sizes, liquid water or ice content, thickness of the cloud, and the sun's zenith angle.
The smaller the drops and the greater the.  There is an ongoing shift in the Arctic sea ice cover from multiyear ice to seasonal ice. Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo.
Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases; cold snow, melting snow, pond formation, pond drainage, pond evolution, open water, and by: Global warming - Global warming - Feedback mechanisms and climate sensitivity: There are a number of feedback processes important to Earth’s climate system and, in particular, its response to external radiative forcing.
The most fundamental of these feedback mechanisms involves the loss of longwave radiation to space from the surface. Since this radiative loss increases with increasing.
A preliminary assessment of the daily variation of ice albedo in the nm range was made using field data collected over snow ice and refrozen slush.
Figure 3. Time series of the evolution of seasonal ice albedo. Seven phases of melt are illustrated. The evolution of multi-year ice albedo [Perovich et al., ] is plotted in blue and seasonal ice albedo is in red. These particular time series assume melt onset on 29 May and freezeup on 13 August.
Figure 2. The summer sea ice is almost half what is used to be, exposing more ocean surface. The consequence is a change in the albedo due to a decrease in the Earth’s ability to reflect energy and an increase in its ability to absorb it. Modeling and estimates of albedo change have previously been used to access the impact of decreased sea ice on albedo.
She explains the ice albedo effect and how warmer temperatures and melting snow and ice can create a positive feedback that can increase planet warming. Comments from expert scientist: Very important concept that is responsible for changing energy balance of the planet in a non-linear manner.
cloud albedo [e.g., Latham, ] are thus profound. Regulation of the Earth’s albedo is also central to other important climate feedbacks, including the snow/ice surface albedo feedback as well as cloud feedbacks.
Hall and Qu , for instance, suggested. term trends of decreasing ice albedo may occur as a result of a sequence of negative mass-balance years and the subsequent accumulation of dust on glacier surfaces (Oerle-mans and others, ).
Other daily or sub-daily albedo variations can occur as a result. The CERES albedo observations allow us to directly estimate the total darkening of the Arctic during the – CERES period. Fig. 4A shows the annual clear-sky and all-sky albedos during this period (solid lines).
The change in all-sky albedo implies that the darkening of the Arctic has caused an increase in solar absorption of W/m 2 during this y period ().Cited by: A typical ocean albedo is approximatelywhile bare sea ice varies from approximately to This means that the ocean reflects only 6 percent of the incoming solar radiation and absorbs the rest, while sea ice reflects 50 to 70 percent of the incoming energy.
The sea ice absorbs less solar energy and keeps the surface cooler. The quasi-centennial epoch of the new Little Ice Age has started at the end after the maximum phase of solar cycle The start of a solar grand minimum is anticipated in solar cycle 27 ± 1 in ± 11 and the beginning of phase of deep cooling in the new Little Ice Age in ± Cited by: 2.
about the operation of these feedbacks, gathered from observations of natural variability, including the daily weather variations and the seasonal cycle. These variations are used to measure, for example, how vapor concentration, lapse rate, or cloud properties change with temperature.
In many regions of our planet these variations cover a much. Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo and surface temperature of a planet.
Ice is very reflective, therefore some of the solar energy is reflected back to space. Ice–albedo feedback plays an important role in global climate change. For instance at higher latitudes, we see warmer. ice concentration, iii) ice age, and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up.
Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Relate solar heat input to the ice and ocean to surface, bottom, lateral, and. Change to the Earth's albedo is a powerful driver of climate.
When the planet's albedo or reflectivity increases, more incoming sunlight is reflected back into space. This has a cooling effect on global temperatures. Conversely, a drop in albedo warms the planet. A change of just 1% to the Earth's albedo has a radiative effect of Wm-2, comparable to the forcing from a doubling of CO2.
2 J. Box et al.: Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback glacier discharge (Rignot et al., ; Howat et al., ). During summer, absorbed solar energy (a.k.a. net shortwave ﬂux), modulated at the surface primarily by albedo, is the dominant factor governing surface melt variability in the ab-lation area (van den Broeke et al., ).
Trend shows average albedo iof sea ice, is declining in all summer months (May-August). retreat of sea ice is diminishing Earth's albedo, or reflectivity, considerably faster than previously estimated.
April Aku Riihelä Observed changes in the albedo of the Arctic sea-ice zone for the period – in sea ice surface albedo. The same basic structure of the re-lationship between CERES albedo and SSM/I ice cover (Fig.
S3) and between the observations and model (Fig. S4) applies to each individual region and to the Arctic as a whole, and we see a similar seasonal cycle in sea ice surface albedo inferred for each region (Fig. S5). The CERES. by changing the incoming solar radiation (by changes in eath's orbit or the sun itself) 2.
by changing the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected (albedo-cloud cover, atmospheric particles, or vegetation). Surface albedo, ice and puddle cover along a line from Cape Bathurst, N.W.T., Canada, to the North Pole, based on ice and puddle cover observations in July and August and albedo observations in July and August Meridional variation of albedo The th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron USAF, in collaboration.
Snow and Ice Albedo The albedo depends upon spectral band, snow thickness, ice thickness and surface temperature. Snow and ice spectral albedos (visible, wavelengths and near-infrared, wavelengths) are distinguished, as both snow and ice spectral reflectivities are significantly higher in the band than in the band.
This two-band. The snow/sea-ice albedo was measured over coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica (off Zhongshan Station) during the austral spring and summer of and The variation of the observed albedo was a combination of a gradual seasonal transition from spring to summer and abrupt changes resulting from synoptic events, including Cited by: 9.
Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. Variations in the earth's climate have had considerable impact on society—particularly agriculture, fisheries, water resources, and recreation—throughout recorded history. Such. These ice albedos are combined with 13 yr of ice concentration estimates from satellite passive microwave measurements to obtain the geographical and seasonal variation of average surface albedo.
Most of the Antarctic sea ice is snow covered, even in summer, so the main determinant of area-averaged albedo is the fraction of open water within Cited by: where ρ i is the density of ice ( kg m −3).Optical properties relevant to energy balance studies modeled using this definition of effective radius agree well with observations and exact model results for a wide range of grain sizes, wavelengths, optical depths and several different crystal shapes [Grenfell and Warren, ; Neshyba et al., ; Grenfell et al., ].
The ice-albedo feedback can turn a small climate change into a big climate change. The sea ice is melting rapidly in the Arctic Ocean.
According to climate models that pace of ice melt will speed up even more, so much that that there may be no more summer sea ice within the next few decades. The Arctic is intricately linked to earth’s climate. As Arctic sea ice declines, the effects are being felt far beyond the Arctic region.
Now a new study shows how losing sea ice means the top of the planet is absorbing more heat than it did just three decades ago – and it makes for a sobering read. Scientists have noticed big changes in the Arctic since satellites started observing earth.Natural Phenomena Affecting Albedo and long Wave Radiation The values of Earth albedo and emission vary with location and time.
The dominating influ- ences on albedo and emission are the topography of Earth and meteorological conditions. 2File Size: 2MB.albedo (red) on two clear afternoons with different values of Chl. Dotted lines for Chl of mg/m3 on 7/31/ Solid lines for Chl of mg/m3 on 8/2/ Figure 4.
A model-observation comparison of spectral albedo ( nm and nm) on a single clear afternoon. MFRSR observations dotted and COART model solid. nm in black and nm in File Size: KB.